You lose hair every day. Everyone does. Although thinning hair may seem like a male issue, women are just as likely to notice it after age 50. I know I did… So, last year I started researching the causes, and the best natural remedies for hair loss.
In this article, we will explore many natural remedies for hair loss.
Our culture associates women's hair loss with health and beauty so losing it can be a scary symptom.
You can lose up to 100-150 hairs per day and it's considered normal. If you feel you're losing more than this, it's time to pay attention to the cause and heal from the inside out using nature-based medicine.
While genetics do play a part in hair loss, most hair loss cases are actually preventable and reversible.
Causes of Hair Loss
Let's take a look at what causes hair loss and what you should look out for to know if your hair loss is abnormal.
First of all, no matter if you are male or female, if you're over age 50 you are more prone to hair loss. While men can experience baldness, women are more likely to experience thinning. Yet some women are also susceptible to baldness.
In women, hair loss is triggered by:
- Menstrual issues
- Thyroid imbalances
- Discontinuing contraceptive pills
- Poor diet
- Lack of adequate supply of blood to the scalp
- Excessive stress levels
- Use of certain medications
- Excess of vitamin A consumption
- Sudden weight loss
- Iron deficiency
- Excessive exposure to heat and harsh sun
- Use of chemicals in hair products
- Scalp infections such as ringworm
- Certain skin disorders like sarcoidosis
- Trichotillomania, a condition where people just pull away their hair
According to Ayurveda, hair loss is caused by:
- Excessive salt consumption
- Following a highly alkaline diet
- Increase in Vata and Pitta dosha (imbalanced wind and heat)
- Sleeping during the daytime
- Improper digestion
- Consuming foods that are not in harmony with nature
- Constant exposure to toxic fumes or pollution
Some of the common symptoms of hair loss are:
- Gradual thinning of hair from the top of the head
- Bald spots in patches
- Sudden hair loss just combing and washing normally. You notice just a gentle tug is all it takes
- Unexpected hair loss over the entire body as a result of certain radiation and chemotherapy
- Hair breaking away while trying to eliminate knots.
- Scaling, triggered by an infection, that spreads in patches
If you experience excessive itching or oozing or bleeding from the scalp, see a dermatologist to rule out other skin issues.
Natural Remedies for Hair Loss
These natural remedies for hair loss in the following sections have multiple benefits and are safe and free from negative impact.
Lifestyle Remedies for Hair Loss
Staying hydrated is crucial to tissue growth and health. The hair shaft itself is largely made up of water. Aim to drink at least 64 ounces of water alone each day.
Smoking lowers circulation, which affects the blood flow to the scalp. Besides, the toxins also lead to an inadequate supply of nutrients, which can cause hair loss. In an article that appeared in International Business Times in September 2011 , smoking could up the risk of hair loss.
Cut down stress
The higher the levels of stress are, the more the hair loss will be. According to a study , stress inhibits the growth of hair. Elevated levels of cortisol caused by stress can cause hair loss, especially if you have a genetic predisposition.
Aim to get 6 to 8 hours of calm sleep in the night if you want to prevent and ease hair loss. According to an article published by a hair loss clinic in Britain, The Belgravia Centre , “Lack of sleep can have a negative effect on hair, leaving it dry, brittle, and lackluster. It can cause hair to grow more slowly and you may notice more hairs on your brush than usual.”
The article even goes on to say that “Stress can cause hair loss conditions such as Telogen Effluvium and can trigger some cases of Alopecia Areata. So, it’s perhaps no surprise that sleep deprivation – a form of stress – can also negatively impact your hair.” Telogen effluvium is a form of hair loss portrayed by diffused hair loss, often with an acute onset but there is no scarring involved. Learn how to get a good night of sleep.
Regulate your hormones
Thyroid imbalances are known to be one of the most worrisome causes of hair loss. Insulin insensitivity also leads to hair loss. So, if you feel your thyroid is not working right or if you have an issue with insulin, you may want to see an endocrinologist to have your thyroid checked or start by incorporating some natural remedies for thyroid health.
Keep your hair away from harsh chemicals and constant exposure to heat. Styling products can help you look more beautiful, but long term, they do more harm than good. Refrain the regular and frequent use of chemicals, including hair colors.
Let your hair dry naturally whenever you or invest in a professional hairdryer with Ionic technology to preserve the natural moisture in the hair. (This was a game-changer for me and the secret to frizz-free hair!) Towel dry gently and minimize the use of heat on your hair.
Eat a Rich, Balanced Diet
- Take whole foods diet high in good fats, like walnuts, avocados, and wild-caught salmon.
- Aim for 5 to 9 servings of fresh veggies and fruits. If this sounds difficult, juice!
- Eat plenty of protein, your hair is made of protein collagen!
- Avoid sugar, because it can trigger the production of the stress hormone, cortisol
Be sure to cleanse and detox each spring and fall to cleanse your digestive tract which promotes proper nourishment for your hair, skin, and nails.
Home Remedies for Hair Loss
Not only does coconut oil prevent hair loss, it also promotes hair growth.
It contains good fat, minerals, and proteins that are essential to prevent hair loss. Also, it's rich in potassium and iron, all of which are beneficial for your hair.
Warm about 3 tbsp coconut oil and massage it from your hair root to the tip. Leave overnight and wash off with warm water. You can also use coconut oil for daily application as well. Add a handful of Holy Basil leaves and 10 crushed black peppercorns to one cup coconut oil and allow the oil to smoke. Turn off the heat and once the oil becomes cool, store it in an airtight container and use it as your hair oil.
While it is mostly used as a natural hair dye and conditioner, it contains properties that could strengthen your hair from the root.
Boil about 4 tbsp dried henna leaves in 1 1/2 cup sesame oil. Let cool and filter the oil and use this mixture to massage your scalp daily.
You can also make a henna pack to reduce hair loss and promote hair growth. Mix about 3 to 6 tbsp powdered henna with two egg whites and 2 tbsp coconut oil. Apply on the scalp and wash off after one hour.
The egg is home to several ingredients that help to prevent or control hair loss. It is a rich source of sulfur and contains phosphorous, zinc, iodine, selenium, and protein, which prevent hair loss and promotes hair growth.
Mix one egg white with 2 tsp coconut oil and beat until the mixture turns smooth and shiny. Apply on the scalp and hair. Wait for 20 minutes before rinsing off with a mild shampoo and cool water.
One of the richest sources to nourish the tissues of hair.
Massage 1/3 cup coconut milk into your scalp and leave it overnight. It is also one of the most effective natural remedies for hair loss, especially balding.
The seeds of fenugreek contain certain hormone antecedents that reduce hair fall, rebuild your hair follicles, and promote hair growth. Fenugreek has nicotinic acid and proteins that make it one of the most effective natural remedies for hair loss.
Soak one cup of fenugreek seeds in water for 8 to 10 hours. Ground them to a paste along with the water. Apply on your hair after whipping with a little olive oil. Wait for 30 minutes and rinse off using lukewarm water. Repeat for 30 days to see noticeable changes.
A wonderful home remedy for hair loss is Jojoba Oil. It has been used by women and men since time unknown. Just rub into the scalp and the hair, mostly on those areas where thinning or balding are more prominent.
You can mix it with olive oil or coconut oil and use it as a daily hair massage oil.
Known to slow hair loss in women and prevent male pattern baldness. It has the power to slow down dihydrotestosterone synthesis. The ideal daily dose is 150 to 300 mg, depending on the intensity of your hair loss.
Poor circulation is one of the reasons behind hair loss. Include safflower in your diet to increase your circulation. Being a natural vasodilator, it helps to relax the blood vessels and promote blood supply and oxygen to the scalp, promoting hair growth. You can also massage your scalp with safflower oil.
Just warm about 3 to 4 tsp of safflower oil, massage on your scalp, and leave overnight. Wash off with lukewarm water and mild shampoo the next morning.
A natural hair conditioner banana contains protein and potassium that curbs hair loss.
Mash two medium-sized ripe bananas with 3 tbsp coconut milk in the bowl and apply the paste on your hair. Wash your hair after 10 minutes with cool water and a mild shampoo.
Packed with carbohydrates, protein, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and vitamins B and C – All of which promote healthy hair growth.
Drink about one cup of fresh beetroot juice in your diet. Prepare a smoothie by blending two medium-sized beets with 2 carrots, 15 almonds, and non-sweetened yogurt for a hair-friendly drink.
Or, boil a handful of beetroot leaves in water. Grind the boiled leaves with henna and apply the paste to your scalp. Wash off after 20 minutes using cool water. Repeat 3 times a week to see noticeable changes.
Ayurvedic Remedies for Hair Loss
According to Ayurveda, your body type and the health of your tissues have a lot to do with how much hair you have. From an Ayurvedic perspective, there are four main reasons for hair loss.
1. If you have a lot of heat in your constitution, (Pitta dosha) you are more prone to baldness. Pitta is the fire element. This means the excess heat generated in the body is causing the hair loss. According to my favorite Ayurvedic doctor, (Dr. Vasant Lad) hair loss is a metabolic disorder.
Living in a hot climate, excessive consumption of spicy, salty and sour foods, pungent and hot foods, caffeine, alcohol, red meats and excessive smoking, as well as fried, oily, greasy, and acidic foods aggravate Pitta, which leads to hair loss.
2. Additionally, if you have an imbalance in Vata dosha or a Vata body type, you are more prone to hair loss. Vata dosha is responsible for the movement of nutrients through the channels of your body. Imbalanced Vata can obstruct the flow of nutrition to the hair cells, leading to hair loss.
3. Your hair is a by-product of your bones and the quality of your hair depends on the healthiness of your bones.
4. Ayurveda also recognizes that after age 50, we enter the phase of life governed by Vata dosha, which results in increased hair loss.
Ayurveda and Digestion
Digestion has prime importance in Ayurveda. As you may already know, the complete digestion and assimilation of nutrients make up the building blocks of your body. The bottom line is, good digestion results in a glowing, healthy body and that includes hair, skin, and nails.
Paying attention to how well you are digesting is the single most important thing you can do to maintain the health and beauty of your hair naturally. Digestion is the process of breaking down food into nutrients your body can use to foster a healthy immune system, as well as a full head of hair. The better your digestion, the better your health.
Here are some hair growth remedies from Ayurveda
The petals and leaves of hibiscus have often been recommended as an adequate natural remedy to curb hair loss. Hibiscus flowers enhance the hair growth process by stimulating blood circulation in the scalp to supply essential nutrients. And the presence of calcium and vitamin C in the leaves and petals strengthens the roots and hair.
Crush a handful of leaves and flowers and mix with water to make a paste. Apply to the scalp and hair and leave it on for a few hours. Rinse off with cold water using a mild shampoo. Or, crush a few leaves and flowers of hibiscus and add to coconut or sesame oil. Allow the oil to smoke and leaves and flowers to burn. Filter the oil and use it as a hair massage oil as required.
Contains enzymes that reduce hair fall and promote hair growth. Aloe is alkalizing by nature so it helps to restore the pH levels of hair and scalp, which can reduce the loss of hair while stimulating hair growth. It strengthens the hair, relieves scalp itching, redness and inflammation, and offers relief from dandruff.
Massage aloe gel or juice onto the scalp and wash off with lukewarm water after 30 minutes. You can also mix aloe gel with egg white to make a nourishing hair pack. Make sure you wash off after one hour with a mild shampoo and condition the hair with coconut oil afterward. You can also consume one tablespoon of aloe vera juice daily on an empty stomach to prevent and ease hair loss.
Rich in vitamin C, Amalaki helps to reduce hair fall and hair loss. It also promotes faster hair growth. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and exfoliating properties can ease scalp infections.
Mix one tablespoon Amalaki with one tbsp lemon juice and a little coconut oil. Apply to the scalp and massage thoroughly. Wash off the next morning using a mild shampoo and lukewarm water. You can also dilute 1 Tablespoons Amalaki with 1/2 cup of lukewarm water and consume it on an empty stomach to prevent hair loss. Powdered Amalaki can be mixed with powdered henna and egg white to prepare an anti-hair loss pack.
4. Bhringraj Oil
Known as the king of the hair, Bhringraj oil can easily penetrate the scalp to not only help hair growth but helps with dry scalp, dandruff prevents graying of hair, and adds shine.
Massage one to two teaspoons bhringraj oil onto your scalp and leave it on overnight. Wash off with lukewarm water and mild shampoo the next morning. Repeat the process four to five times a week to see quicker results.
A weakened immune system is one of the triggers for hair loss. Ashwagandha boosts your immunity, leaving you energized and healthier. It eases stress, increases vigor, and offers relief from stress-induced hair loss. You can either consume Ashwagandha supplements.
Mix one teaspoon powdered Ashwagandha with powders of Holy Basil, Amla, and Fenugreek Seeds. Add this to 2 cups sesame oil and steep for 30 minutes on low flame. Allow the oil to cool before storing in an airtight oil to be used as hair oil.
6. Soap Nuts
Used by Indian women as an effective natural remedy for hair loss for centuries. Regular use can reduce hair loss and stimulate the growth of thick, beautiful, and long hair. It is a safe alternative to your shampoo and can be used daily without damaging your hair. The saponins present are what make your hair stronger.
Strengthens your hair from the roots by nourishing the follicles and promotes hair growth. Use it to massage your scalp and hair to prevent dandruff, breakage, damage, and loss. When used regularly, it reduces split ends and promotes hair growth.
Create a hair pack by mixing Brahmi, Amalaki, and Ashwagandha powder and a generous amount of yogurt and 2 tbsp coconut oil. Apply on your scalp and hair and leave on for an hour before washing off with lukewarm water.
Just like soap nuts, Shikakai can be used as a daily shampoo. It contains vitamin C and D as well as plenty of antioxidants that protect your hair from loss due to damage and breakage. Shikakai also strengthens hair, making it longer and shinier. It reduces dandruff and conditions hair to make it lustrous.
Mix about 2 tbsp shikakai powder with warm water to make a fine paste. Use this paste as a shampoo. Or, you can apply this as a hair mask. Leave it on for 30 minutes and wash it off. You can also prepare a decoction by steeping 3 tbsp dried shikakai in water for 3 hours. Strain the liquid and use it as a rinse after it cools down.
A Simple Ayurvedic Oil for Hair Loss Recipe
You may get many Ayurvedic hair oils online, but here is a simple recipe that you could try at home.
This oil helps to control and reduce hair loss and hair fall while promoting the growth of longer, stronger, thicker, and shinier hair. You can choose sesame oil or coconut oil as the base, depending on the texture of your hair and climatic conditions.
All the herbs are used in the form of powder.
Sesame oil or coconut – 2 cups
Coconut milk – 1 cup
Holy basil – 2 tbsp
Amla – 4 tbsp
Black pepper – 3 tsp
Henna – 2 tbsp
Curry leaves – 4 tbsp
Fenugreek seeds – 2 tsp
Brahmi – 3 tbsp
Camphor – 10 pieces [each one about the size of a small button]
In a bowl, mix all dry ingredients, except camphor. Using a flat spoon, stir the mixture so that everything blends.
To a large saucepan, add oil and allow it to smoke.
Add coconut milk and simmer the mixture for 15 minutes.
Then add the powders and simmer for 2 to 3 hours.
Add camphor and simmer for 15 minutes.
Turn off the flame and keep aside.
Once the oil cools down, strain and store in an airtight container. Use it as your daily hair oil or just to massage your scalp and hair.
Yoga Practices to Stimulate Hair Growth
Yoga has been practiced by countless people for thousands of years. Once you start to practice Yoga, you will begin to enjoy better health, deeper sleep, a sharper mind, and a better outlook on life.
You’ll also notice an improvement in your flexibility, vision, and general appearance. In other words, you’ll feel more vibrantly alive and enjoy better health physically, mentally and emotionally.
Below you will find the best practices to support and stimulate hair growth.
Uttanasana or Standing Forward Fold
Forward folds help to stimulate the flow of blood to the scalp, offering relief from stress and hair loss. It also promotes hair growth.
Stand with your feet separated hip-width apart. Keep your spine straight. Engage your navel. Inhale and as you exhale, fold forward from your hips. Push your hips back while resting the abdomen on your thighs. Place your palms on the side of your feet.
Let your head hang freely and close to your shin. Relax your shoulders and face. Hold the posture for 5 minutes.
To come out, place your palms on your waist, and gently curl up vertebra by vertebra. Take a gentle backbend.
Tip: Practice this posture after giving your scalp and hair a good oil massage. Repeat weekly.
Here is one of the simplest ways to limit hair loss and promote hair growth. You can do this practice anytime and anywhere. But it's taught that doing it on an empty stomach, gets better results.
Curl the fingers of both hands towards your palm in such a way that your nails are touching each other. Now, rub the nails, except the thumbs, against each other for 5 minutes. Repeat the rubbing process of 15 minutes a day, taking a break of 30 seconds in between each session.
This is the mudra of life and it offers multiple benefits for your body. It increases Kapha dosha which strengthens the hair. Simultaneously, it also increases the Earth element, thereby reducing hair loss and promoting hair growth.
Sit in a comfortable seated posture of your choice, keeping the spine erect. Relax your shoulders and neck. Roll back your shoulders without straining the muscles. Rest the palms, with the inner palm facing the ceiling, on your thighs. Join the tips of ring and little fingers with the thumbs of respective hands. Close your eyes and hold the mudra for 45 minutes.
Practice the Mudra 3 times a day, 15 minutes, but make sure that you do not eat 60 minutes before and after the practice.
The array of natural remedies for hair loss is pretty vast and infinite. While all these natural solutions are safe, it is always advisable to take the advice of your physician before experimenting.
I’ve given you lots of natural remedies for hair loss here, so you may want to bookmark for future reference.
Your body is a powerful self-healing organism and nobody knows your body better than you do, so get to know your constitution, eat right, exercise, and take side-effect-free natural remedies.
While all the natural remedies for hair loss mentioned here are safe, please consult your doctor, if you have cause for concern.
Please promise me one more thing… You won’t hesitate to ask me questions in the comment area below. I’m here to help you out and I would love nothing more than for you to be the healthiest version of yourself possible. Let me know if you need anything and I will be sure to get back within “hours” most of the time.
I look forward to helping you!
For more information on Ayurvedic treatment and medicine for hair loss, see this link: https://www.hairlossrevolution.com/ayurvedic-treatments-and-medicine/
References http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/hair-loss/tc/hair-loss-topic-overview#1/ttp://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hair-loss/basics/symptoms/con-20027666http://naturalsociety.com/natural-remedies-for-hair-loss-thinning/http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/essential-exper-tips-to-prevent-and-treat-excessive-hair-loss/http://www.thehealthsite.com/beauty/home-remedies-for-hair-loss-that-actually-work/http://homeremedyshop.com/24-powerful-home-remedies-for-reducing-hair-loss/https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/other/home-remedies-for-hair-loss-in-women.html http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/beauty/Try-Ayurveda-for-hair-loss/articleshow/10453366.cms
28 CommentsLeave a Reply
What a wealth of information you have given us! I will probably be revisiting your site often in order to try some of the home remedies you suggested. I really like the fact that you took time – not only to recommend products – but the actually give recipes which people can make themselves.
Your research is very thorough, and there are many things which I did not know before. For instance, you said that our hair is a byproduct of our bones. Good to know!
Congratulations on a job well done!
Judy! Thanks for taking the time to write! Love that you’ll come back more often. love! xo
Wow Jackie what a wonderful and in depth post!
I learnt a lot! I am male and have lost a lot of hair over the years. I eat very healthy and live in a hot climate (Queensland, Australia) but had no idea a highly alkaline diet can cause hair loss. I guess the key is to be balanced.
Loved the different remedies and I will definitely been giving a few a try.
I will give the coconut oil and milk a try. I consume a lot of those products.
I love your website too. How long have you been on the healthy journey?
Look forward to more inspiring posts,
Hi Kev, Awesome to meet you here. Thanks for connecting. Yes, the remedies work on guys as well, so I’m so thrilled you’ll try. Please report back and let me know what worked for you? (or what didn’t?) 🙂
Thank you for the feedback on the site. I started getting really interested in natural health around 2000. 🙂
Thanks for commenting.
Great website and very informative! It’s very difficult to find any reliable information about natural remedies for hair lose. I didn’t realise there were so many different types of things you could use to help this other than the obvious ones, sleep and stress etc…
Thanks very much for the information, really good read.
Thanks for the comment Lee. I appreciate hearing from you.
Nice website with very useful tips. I love making my own home DIY for natural home remedies and you feel so much better after using your own home remedies.
You’ve provided so many useful tips which are great especially for someone like me who’s always looking for a new way to take care of my hair.
Thanks for the great tips.
thanks for connecting and commenting
When I saw your site I just knew I had to take a look. For several years now I have felt like I have lost more hair each time I wash my hair, brush, etc. and I don’t even use harsh stuff in my hair. It is quite evident everytime I vacuum because the roller gets clogged with hair I have to clean out every other time I vacuum. It is a shock I have any hair left to be honest. I actually do have hypothyroidism so I think that may be a large part of why I am losing too much hair, I used to have full and healthy hair and it makes me feel sad because I miss my old hair. Your site was informative, EXTREMELY well laid out and it offered useful and relevant suggestions and I am probably going to try them all! I will stop at nothing to have my crowing joy back! I’m so glad I found your site.
Hi Barb and thank you for the wonderful comment. I too discovered I had a hypothyroid condition. Here’s another post on all the best natural remedies for hypothyroidism. check it out. https://motherofhealth.com/natural-remedies-hypothy…
gratitude & appreciation, Jackie
Hi. I suffer from ME which seems to be progressively getting worse, I also have Androgenic Alopecia which was diagnosed over 20 years ago. I’m only 43 and it’s so embarrassing to suffer a lot of baldness. Can you recommend anything please as I’m desperate to make myself feel better. I’ve just invested in a Kansa wand.,
Thanks for connecting. Have you had your thyroid checked? Do you have an iron deficiency? I feel like lifestyle measures are very important… drinking water, sleep, cutting down on stress, good nutrition. I wouldn’t use hot water in the shower. Luke warm at best or try taking cooler showers. Did you try some of the natural remedies in this post? Have you tried Bhringraj oil? (I’ve linked to it above.) Make sure to use a mild shampoo like soap nuts recommended above.
My hair fall was due mostly to getting older, but I had lots of regrowth with Jade Bloom “Regrow” (listed above).
Also, don’t discount yoga. It can stimulate blood flow to the scalp and help.
My very best to you!
p.s. Nicola… Eat a cooling diet, especially during warmer months. (Pitta reducing diet)
The article is very informative; When I saw your site I just knew I had to take a look. For several years now I have felt like I have lost more hair each time I wash my hair, brush, etc. it makes me feel sad because I miss my old hair. So help me and tell me how I can solve the problem of hair fall.
Hi Steph, Thanks for connecting. I’m so happy you found the post. Let me know how they work for you!
Great to see these natural remedies for hair loss!
Thanks for sharing this beautiful post!!
t’s normal to see some hair coming off your scalp when you brush your hair daily. Just try to have a stress-less healthy lifestyle including balanced diet.
There are many causes of hair loss. You may lose hair due to some hormonal changes, unhealthy lifestyle, junk food , vitamins deficiency etc.
Whatever the causes, you should try to eliminate them first and then resort to these home remedies for hair loss.
Onion juice is easy and best home remedy for hair loss
Thank you for the Remedies to prevent hair loss. It is really nice article about natural remedies for hair growth.
You’re most welcome!
lovely article…did you get these home remedies for hair (hair masks and hair oil recipes) from dr vasanth lads book? or from any other ayurvedic doctor? I am thinking of getting the book.
You can’t go wrong with any of Dr. Lad’s books! They are all terrific. Most of the recommendations are from various sources I’ve researched in the last 17 years! 🙂 Take care, Veena! xo
very helpful and informative post, thanks for sharing this winsome article with us.
I was wondering why I’m losing hair! My diet was okay and not taking any medication and also no dandruff in scull. I was kinda upset and thought may be it is hereditary. But after reading this I believe I have found my solutions. Yeah I can’t sleep well and may be 4 hours rough. Thanks for your blog, Now on I will try to get some sound sleep.
I must say thank you for the resource you shared! Amazing and happy to get all of this useful information about “Natural Remedies For Hair Loss”. Also, Thanks for the effort of “DIY”. Keep sharing.
Thanks for the great info. Keep sharing.
Thanks for these tips. When you take the next meal or snack, keep a few key nutrition principles in mind: Eat a variety of foods while avoiding foods high in sugar or fat; choose natural and lightly processed foods; and don’t over cook. Follow these simple rules to supply your body with adequate protein, useful carbohydrates, and a good balance of dietary fats. All of which promote healthy hair growth.